a study of invisible skeletons in future ideas
Metaphysical visualization: The earliest data visualizations were likely physical: built by arranging stones or pebbles, and later, clay tokens. According to an eminent archaeologist (Schmandt-Besserat, 1999):
"Whereas words consist of immaterial sounds, the tokens were concrete, solid, tangible artifacts, which could be handled, arranged and rearranged at will. For instance, the tokens could be ordered in special columns according to types of merchandise, entries and expenditures; donors or recipients. The token system thus encouraged manipulating data by abstracting all possible variables. (Harth 1983. 19) […] No doubt patterning, the presentation of data in a particular configuration, was developed to highlight special items (Luria 1976. 20). "
Clay tokens suggest that physical objects were used to externalize information, support visual thinking and enhance cognition way before paper and writing were invented.
Jason Dodge, Above the Weather, 2007
Alberto Garutti, Filo lungo 1044 km: la distanza dalla mia casa a Milano alla Galleria di André Buchmann a Berlino / Line 1044 km long: the distance from my home in Milan to André Buchmann Galerie in Berlin, 2015
Ernesto Ballesteros, 40.000 km de hilo confinados a un espacio de arte, 2009
Helmut Smits,1847 meter, the distance from my house to my studio, 2010
Helmut Smits, 695 Hours, 2017
Alberto Garutti, Madonna, 2007
Francesco Arena, Genova (foto di gruppo), 2011
Emilio Chapela, Narcoconcreto, 2013
Felix Gonzales Torres, Untitled (Portrait of Ross in L.A.), 1991
Francesco Arena, Barra (da 8 a 9), 2011
Tom Friedman, 1000 Hours of Staring, 1992-1997
Jason Dodge, Sleeping in the Order of the Slowing of Time, 2011